‘Spectacular’ artefacts found as Norway ice-patch melts

Discoveries exposed by retreating ice include snowshoe for horses and bronze age ski

A horse snowshoe found during 2019 fieldwork at Lendbreen. Photograph: Espen Finstad/secretsoftheice.com

The retreat of a Norwegian mountain ice patch, which is melting because of climate change, has revealed a lost Viking-era mountain pass scattered with “spectacular” and perfectly preserved artefacts that had been dropped by the side of the road.

The pass, at Lendbreen in Norway’s mountainous central region, first came to the attention of local archaeologists in 2011, after a woollen tunic was discovered that was later dated to the third or fourth century AD. The ice has retreated significantly in the years since, exposing a wealth of artefacts including knitted mittens, leather shoes and arrows still with their feathers attached.

Though carbon dating of the finds reveals the pass was in use by farmers and travellers for a thousand years, from the Nordic iron age, around AD200-300, until it fell out of use after the Black Death in the 14th century, the bulk of the finds date from the period around AD1000, during the Viking era, when trade and mobility in the region were at their zenith.

Distaff made from birch, radiocarbon-dated to about AD800. Photograph: Espen Finstad/secretsoftheice.com

Described as a “dream discovery” by glacial archaeologists, the finding was also a “poignant and evocative reminder of climate change”, said James Barrett, a medieval and environmental archaeologist at the University of Cambridge, who has been working with Norwegian archaeologists on the project since 2011.

Object believed to be a locking device found in the Lendbreen pass area. Photograph: Espen Finstad/secretsoftheice.com

“One is talking about artefacts that were put in the deep freeze 1,000 years ago, and later and earlier, and were taken out when we found them. So a textile is almost perfectly preserved, one might find arrows with the fletching perfectly preserved, with the sinew still in place, the glue that glued the feathers to the shaft. These are quite remarkable finds.”

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