Stone tools thought to have been used as knives and scraper 13,000 years ago were found in a cave in the district of Düzköy in Trabzon.
Karadeniz Technical University (KTU) Literature Faculty Archeology Department started a surface research project in various regions of Trabzon in 2018 by Protohistory and Foreland Archeology lecturers.
As part of the research, 103 pieces of stone tools were found in a cave in Koskarlı, Çayırbağı District of Düzköy district. Seven of these pieces were studied by archaeologists. In the first examination, it was determined that tools, thought to date back to about 13,000 years, were used as knives and scrapers.
Trabzon’s oldest known residents
Dr. Hülya Çalışkan Akgül said that as a result of preliminary analysis, the stone fragments were dated to the end of the ice age. Stating that the area in question is rich in caves and rocks, Akgül said, “We have documented the oldest inhabitants of the Trabzon region in this cave.” said.
Akgül said that the raw material of the stone finds in the cave was obsidian and flintstone, and it was determined that their origins were in Cappadocia and the Caucasus.
Stating that the survey will be completed in 2023, Akgül said, “By the end of 2023, we will have visited all districts and all regions of Trabzon. This cave excited us very much. Because it has a group of finds that will make a great contribution not only to Trabzon, but also to Anatolian archeology. Because until now, it was not possible to talk about the data that will be dated this early in these regions. Therefore, a stereotypical thought started to change gradually, about Trabzon’s distant past. We think that our first cave will not be the only one. We think there is a possibility to find various stone tools in other caves. ”
Stone tools from the epipalaeolithic period
Stating that the traces on the stones they found are regular and it is not possible to form with natural processes, Dr. Hülya Çalışkan Akgül gave the following information about the distinctive features of the stone tools they found in the cave:
“The period we are talking about is a period in which human beings still live as hunters and gatherers, but specialization in this field is achieved. A phase where they started to make more refined, better retouched, machined and smaller stone tools. These tools, which we define as “microliths”, are as small as 1 centimeter. With their presence, we can easily understand that these stones are produced by human beings. ”
Stating that they are doing a preliminary study to date the found objects, Dr. Akgül said, “As a result of our preliminary studies and comparisons, we name these instruments as” epipalaeolithic period “. It is now possible for the stone tools of the Koskarlı Cave to think about 11,000 years ago or 13,000 years before Christ. For more accurate results, it is possible to obtain more detailed and precise data with a more detailed excavation study and drilling work. ”
Seven waste pieces we selected from the cave were sent to Canada by Dr. It was sent to Tristan Carter for investigation. According to the preliminary results from Canada, 5 of the seven pieces are of Cappadocia origin, namely Nevşehir, Aksaray, and Ürgüp. 2 of them are of “Trans Caucasian” origin. It has been claimed that the “Trans Caucasus” may have come from that geography that will include Armenia, Georgia, and perhaps Northeast Anatolia. ”
“This means that human beings have a certain movement. Although it is difficult to say the route of the movement or in what ways it might have taken place, we know that one of these materials came to Trabzon from different regions, one from Cappadocia and the other from Trans Caucasus. What we call Paleolithic, or 13,000 years ago, there was a human activity, human mobility in this region. With the stone tools we obtained from the “Koskarlı Cave”, we broke the prejudice such that there is nobody in the region. ”
In the future, excavations are planned to be carried out in the cave.