Although we know 36 of them, there are 150 – 200 underground cities in the underground world in Cappadocia. Although the underground cities of Cappadocia, which have always been likened to the roots of a tree and are connected to each other by spreading under the soil, are still associated with ancient civilizations, the mystery of many of them is still unresolved. With his legends circulating from language to language, even now, the mind is forced, “I wonder how it was done” he has come to conceal his architecture.
Underground City of Cappadocia
One of the most interesting and intriguing cultural riches unique to Cappadocia is the underground cities. Considering that there are settlements carved beneath all the villages and towns in the Cappadocia region, which covers a total area of 25,000 km², there may be more underground cities than predicted. And there is no such underground network that is unique to the geological structure of the region.
The underground cities of Cappadocia were built by carving the rocks down on the volcanic tuffy terrain. In the old times when no technology existed, it is not yet known which tools people use to reach the depths where such large settlements are created. The traces left by the ancient civilizations are used in their dating.
Derinkuyu Underground City of Cappadocia
The first of the deepest, widest and most amazing underground cities of Cappadocia is Derinkuyu Underground City. Nevşehir – Niğde on the way and 30 km away from Nevşehir is located in the underground city of Derinkuyu district.
Derinkuyu Underground City was discovered in 1963 and some of it was cleaned and opened to visitors in 1967. Although it is now 8 floors open down to 50 meters, if it is cleared all the actual depth can reach 85 meters and 12 -13. is estimated to go down to the floor. The underground city of Cappadocia, whose clean and accessible area spans a total of 2.5 km, takes its name from the 52 water wells in it. These water wells go down to 60 – 70 meters and meet both the water demand and the ventilation chimney. Some of these chimneys have no connection with the earth to prevent the enemy, who could not go down during the sieges in the region, into the water. This is one of the reasons why the underground city of Cappadocia, which is thoughtfully protected and equipped with a natural ventilation system, does not have any technological explanation.
Even though the underground cities of Cappadocia have similar characteristics with their construction purpose and architecture, you will encounter a higher level of equipment while visiting Derinkuyu Underground City. The floors of the underground city, which has an unclear entrance from the outside, are sometimes connected by narrow corridors. In order to prevent entry in case of danger, measures were taken with huge round stones such as millstone which can be moved by pulling.
Living spaces, cafeterias, kitchens, stables, cafeterias and cisterns can be seen in almost every Cappadocia underground city. The church in the shape of a cross is carved on the 2nd floor of the underground city and can be reached by descending the stairs from the 3rd and 4th floors.
It is believed that the first settlement dates back to the Assyrian Colonies and the 50,000 people can live at the same time in Derinkuyu Underground City, where the first Christians escaped from oppression and oppression. Let us not forget that narrow tunnels and depth can create claustrophobia but it is one of the most important places to visit in Cappadocia.
Kaymakli Underground City of Cappadocia
One of the largest underground cities in Cappadocia is Kaymaklı Underground City. Almost half the size of the Derinkuyu Underground City, this underground city is located in Kaymakli Town, 20 km from Nevsehir and has been a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site since 1984. History of the Hittites and Arab invasions BC. 8th century refers to the Phrygian period.
Although the original depth goes down to 8 times, Kaymaklı Underground City is currently open to visit 4 times. The first floor was separated into stables to facilitate the escape of animals and the corridors opened from the stables provided access to churches and other living spaces. The entrance to the church on the 2nd floor, which was built with 2 apses and a single nave, was controlled by sliding stones. When you enter the church, you will see baptism stone placed in front of the apses and sitting platforms carved on the sides, and you will encounter graves that are thought to belong to the church attendants. The living areas, living, shelter, wine and food supplies are spread on the 3rd and 4th floors.
One of the most interesting places of interest in the Underground City of Kaymaklı is the copper processing workshop, where you will encounter pits with iron forged at the base. Kaymaklı Underground City was opened to visitors in 1964 where all the places gathered around the ventilation chimneys. Derinkuyu Underground City is believed to be connected to the 10 km distance between the hidden tunnels have not yet been found. This underground city is thought to be one of the most populous underground settlements and accommodates 5,000 people at the same time.